Electric Vehicle Technology Explained Books Pdf Filel
Fully updated throughout, Electric Vehicle Technology, Second Edition, is a complete guide to the principles, design and applications of electric vehicle technology. Including all the latest advances, it presents clear and comprehensive coverage of the major aspects of electric vehicle development and offers an engineering-based evaluation of electric motor scooters, cars, buses and trains.
Electric Vehicle Technology Explained Books Pdf Filel
Explaining the underpinning science and technology, this book is essential for practicing electrical, automotive, power, control and instrumentation engineers working in EV research and development. It is also a valuable reference for academics and students in automotive, mechanical, power and electrical engineering.
Written for students and engineers, Electric Vehicle Technology Explained covers the principles, design, and applications of electric vehicle technology. The book presents clear and comprehensive explanations of the major aspects of electric vehicle development and offers an engineering-based evaluation of electric motor scooters, cars, buses, and trains. The revised second edition contains new chapters on types of electric vehicles, including pickup and linear motors, overall efficiencies and energy consumption, and power generation, particularly for zero carbon emissions.
An electric car, battery electric car, or all-electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using only energy stored in batteries. Compared to internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, electric cars are quieter, have no exhaust emissions, and lower emissions overall. In the United States and the European Union, as of 2020, the total cost of ownership of recent electric vehicles is cheaper than that of equivalent ICE cars, due to lower fueling and maintenance costs. Charging an electric car can be done at a variety of charging stations; these charging stations can be installed in both houses and public areas.
Worldwide, 6.6 million plug-in electric cars were sold in 2021, more than doubling 2020 sales, and achieving a market share of 9% of the global new car market. All-electric cars represented 71% of plug-in car sales in 2021. As of December 2021[update], 16 million plug-in electric cars were on the world's roads. Many countries have established government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles, tax credits, subsidies, and other non-monetary incentives while several countries have legislated to phase-out sales of fossil fuel cars, to reduce air pollution and limit climate change.
The Tesla Model 3 became the world's all-time best-selling electric car in early 2020, and in June 2021 became the first electric car to pass 1 million global sales. Together with other emerging automotive technologies such as autonomous driving, connected vehicles and shared mobility, electric cars form a future mobility vision called Autonomous, Connected, Electric and Shared (ACES) Mobility.
The term "electric car" typically refers specifically to battery electric vehicles (BEVs) or all-electric cars, a type of electric vehicle (EV) that has an onboard rechargeable battery pack that can be plugged in and charged from the electric grid, and the electricity stored on the vehicle is the only energy source that provide propulsion for the wheels. The term generally refers to highway-capable automobiles, but there are also low-speed electric vehicles with limitations in terms of weight, power and maximum speed that are allowed to travel on public roads. The latter are classified as Neighborhood Electric Vehicles (NEVs) in the United States, and as electric motorised quadricycles in Europe.
Electricity was among the preferred methods for automobile propulsion in the late-19th and early-20th centuries, providing a level of comfort and an ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline-driven cars of the time. The electric vehicle fleet peaked at approximately 30,000 vehicles at the turn of the 20th century.
In 1897, electric cars first found commercial use as taxis in Britain and in the United States. In London, Walter Bersey's electric cabs were the first self-propelled vehicles for hire at a time when cabs were horse-drawn. In New York City, a fleet of twelve hansom cabs and one brougham, based on the design of the Electrobat II, formed part of a project funded in part by the Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia. During the 20th century, the main manufacturers of electric vehicles in the United States included Anthony Electric, Baker, Columbia, Anderson, Edison, Riker, Milburn, Bailey Electric, and Detroit Electric. Their electric vehicles were quieter than gasoline-powered ones, and did not require gear changes.
Electric cars remained popular until advances in internal-combustion engine (ICE) cars and mass production of cheaper gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles led to a decline. ICE cars' much quicker refueling times and cheaper production-costs made them more popular. However, a decisive moment came with the introduction in 1912 of the electric starter motor that replaced other, often laborious, methods of starting the ICE, such as hand-cranking.
In the early 1990s the California Air Resources Board (CARB) began a push for more fuel-efficient, lower-emissions vehicles, with the ultimate goal of a move to zero-emissions vehicles such as electric vehicles. In response, automakers developed electric models. These early cars were eventually withdrawn from the U.S. market, because of a massive campaign by the US automakers to discredit the idea of electric cars.
Better Place, a venture-backed company based in Palo Alto, California, but steered from Israel, developed and sold battery charging and battery swapping services for electric cars. The company was publicly launched on 29 October 2007 and announced deployment of electric vehicle networks in Israel, Denmark and Hawaii in 2008 and 2009. The company planned to deploy the infrastructure on a country-by-country basis. In January 2008, Better Place announced a memorandum of understanding with Renault-Nissan to build the world's first Electric Recharge Grid Operator (ERGO) model for Israel. Under the agreement, Better Place would build the electric recharge grid and Renault-Nissan would provide the electric vehicles. Better Place filed for bankruptcy in Israel in May 2013. The company's financial difficulties were caused by mismanagement, wasteful efforts to establish toeholds and run pilots in too many countries, the high investment required to develop the charging and swapping infrastructure, and a market penetration far lower than originally predicted.
Starting in 2008, a renaissance in electric vehicle manufacturing occurred due to advances in batteries, and the desire to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and to improve urban air quality. During the 2010s, the electric vehicle industry in China expanded greatly with government support. The subsidies introduced by the Chinese government will however be cut by 20 to 30% and phased out completely before 2023. Several automakers marked up the prices of their electric vehicles in anticipation of the subsidy adjustment, including Tesla, Volkswagen and Guangzhou-based GAC Group, which counts Fiat, Honda, Isuzu, Mitsubishi, and Toyota as foreign partners.
As of 2020[update], the electric vehicle battery is more than a quarter of the total cost of the car. Purchase prices are expected to drop below those of new ICE cars when battery costs fall below US$100 per kWh, which is forecast to be in the mid-2020s.
Electric cars have several benefits when replacing ICE cars, including a significant reduction of local air pollution, as they do not emit exhaust pollutants such as volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, ozone, lead, and various oxides of nitrogen. Similar to ICE vehicles, electric cars emit particulates from tyre and brake wear which may damage health, although regenerative braking in electric cars means less brake dust. More research is needed on non-exhaust particulates. The sourcing of fossil fuels (oil well to gasoline tank) causes further damage as well as use of resources during the extraction and refinement processes.
Depending on the production process and the source of the electricity to charge the vehicle, emissions may be partly shifted from cities to the plants that generate electricity and produce the car as well as to the transportation of material. The amount of carbon dioxide emitted depends on the emissions of the electricity source and the efficiency of the vehicle. For electricity from the grid, the life-cycle emissions vary depending on the proportion of coal-fired power, but are always less than ICE cars.
A 2022 survey found that 33% of car buyers in Europe will opt for a petrol or diesel car when purchasing a new vehicle. 67% of the respondents mentioned opting for the hybrid or electric version. More specifically, it found that electric cars are only preferred by 28% of Europeans, making them the least preferred type of vehicle. 39% of Europeans tend to prefer hybrid vehicles, while 33% prefer petrol or diesel vehicles.
Specifically for the EU, 47% of car buyers over 65 years old are likely to purchase a hybrid vehicle, while 31% of younger respondents do not consider hybrid vehicles a good option. 35% would rather opt for a petrol or diesel vehicle, and 24% for an electric car instead of a hybrid.
Electric motors are more efficient than internal combustion engines in converting stored energy into driving a vehicle. However, they are not equally efficient at all speeds. To allow for this, some cars with dual electric motors have one electric motor with a gear optimised for city speeds and the second electric motor with a gear optimised for highway speeds. The electronics select the motor that has the best efficiency for the current speed and acceleration. Regenerative braking, which is most common in electric vehicles, can recover as much as one fifth of the energy normally lost during braking.