Digital Multimedia by Nigel Chapman - Alibris
Digital Multimedia by Nigel Chapman and Jenny Chapman: A Comprehensive Guide to Multimedia Systems
Digital multimedia is the use of multiple media types, such as text, graphics, audio, video, animation, to create interactive content that can be delivered through digital devices. Digital multimedia has become an essential part of our daily lives, as we use it for communication, education, entertainment, information, business, art, and more. Digital multimedia also has a significant impact on our society, culture, economy, politics, and environment.
But how do we create, manipulate, store, transmit, and display digital multimedia content? What are the technical principles behind each media type? What are the best practices for designing effective and engaging multimedia applications? How do we ensure that our multimedia content is accessible, usable, secure, ethical, and legal?
These are some of the questions that this book aims to answer. Digital Multimedia by Nigel Chapman and Jenny Chapman is a comprehensive guide to multimedia systems that covers both the theoretical foundations and the practical applications of digital multimedia. It is designed as a textbook for students of multimedia courses, as well as a reference for professionals and enthusiasts who want to learn more about this fascinating field.
Fundamentals of Digital Multimedia
In this chapter, you will learn about the basic concepts of digital multimedia, such as:
Media types and formats
There are five main media types that are used in digital multimedia:
Text: written or printed words that convey meaning.
Graphics: visual representations of objects or concepts using shapes, colours, lines, etc.
Audio: sounds that can be heard by humans or machines.
Video: sequences of images that create the illusion of motion.
Animation: a form of video that uses computer-generated or manipulated images.
Each media type has different formats that define how the data is encoded, stored, transmitted, and displayed. For example, some common formats for text are ASCII, Unicode, HTML, PDF; for graphics are JPEG, PNG, GIF; for audio are MP3, WAV; for video are MPEG, AVI; for animation are Flash, GIF.
Digitization and compression
Digitization is the process of converting analog signals, such as sound waves or light rays, into digital data, such as binary numbers. Digitization allows us to store, transmit, and manipulate multimedia content using digital devices, such as computers, smartphones, cameras, etc.
Compression is the process of reducing the size of digital data by removing or reducing redundant or irrelevant information. Compression allows us to save storage space, bandwidth, and processing time when dealing with multimedia content. There are two types of compression: lossless and lossy. Lossless compression preserves the original quality of the data, while lossy compression sacrifices some quality for higher compression rates.
Multimedia authoring and delivery
Multimedia authoring is the process of creating multimedia content using software tools that allow us to combine and synchronize different media types, add interactivity and functionality, and design the layout and appearance of the content. Some examples of multimedia authoring tools are Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Premiere, Adobe Flash, etc.
Multimedia delivery is the process of distributing multimedia content to the intended audience using various channels and platforms, such as CDs, DVDs, websites, mobile apps, etc. Multimedia delivery involves considerations such as compatibility, security, quality, performance, and feedback.
Graphics and Images in Digital Multimedia
In this chapter, you will learn about the principles and techniques of graphics and images in digital multimedia, such as:
Vector graphics and bitmapped images
There are two main ways of representing graphics and images in digital multimedia: vector graphics and bitmapped images.
Vector graphics are graphics that are defined by mathematical equations that describe the shapes, colours, positions, and transformations of the graphical elements. Vector graphics are scalable, meaning that they can be resized without losing quality. They are also editable, meaning that they can be modified easily. Vector graphics are suitable for creating logos, icons, diagrams, etc.
Bitmapped images are images that are composed of pixels (picture elements), which are small dots of colour arranged in a grid. Bitmapped images have a fixed resolution, meaning that they have a limited number of pixels. They are also rasterized, meaning that they lose quality when enlarged or distorted. Bitmapped images are suitable for capturing realistic scenes, such as photographs.
Colour models and palettes
Colour models are systems that define how colours are represented in digital multimedia. There are different colour models for different purposes and devices. Some common colour models are:
RGB: Red-Green-Blue. This is an additive colour model that uses three primary colours of light to create other colours by mixing them in different proportions. RGB is used for displaying colours on monitors and screens.
CMYK: Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Black. This is a subtractive colour model that uses four primary colours of ink to create other colours by subtracting them from white light. CMYK is used for printing colours on paper.
HSV: Hue-Saturation-Value. This is a perceptual colour model that describes colours in terms of their hue (colour name), saturation (colour intensity), and value (colour brightness). HSV is used for selecting and adjusting colours in graphics software.
Colour palettes are collections of colours that are used in digital multimedia. Colour palettes can be predefined or customized according to the needs and preferences of the author and the audience. Colour palettes can affect the mood, meaning, and aesthetics of the multimedia content.
Image editing and manipulation
Image editing and manipulation are processes of modifying and transforming images using software tools that allow us to perform various operations on the image data, such as cropping, resizing, rotating, flipping, filtering, enhancing, retouching, etc. Image editing and manipulation can be used for various purposes, such as correcting errors or defects, improving quality or appearance, creating artistic effects or illusions, etc.
Video and Animation in Digital Multimedia
Video and Animation in Digital Multimedia
In this chapter, you will learn about the principles and techniques of video and animation in digital multimedia, such as:
Video capture and editing
Video capture is the process of recording moving images using a camera or a device that converts analog signals into digital data. Video capture involves considerations such as frame rate, resolution, aspect ratio, and format.
Video editing is the process of arranging, modifying, and enhancing video clips using software tools that allow us to perform various operations on the video data, such as trimming, cutting, splicing, merging, transitions, effects, etc. Video editing can be used for various purposes, such as storytelling, narration, expression, etc.
Video compression and streaming
Video compression is the process of reducing the size of video data by removing or reducing redundant or irrelevant information. Video compression allows us to save storage space, bandwidth, and processing time when dealing with video content. There are two types of video compression: intra-frame and inter-frame. Intra-frame compression works on each frame individually, while inter-frame compression works on the differences between frames.
Video streaming is the process of delivering video content over a network in a continuous and sequential manner. Video streaming allows us to watch video content without downloading it completely beforehand. Video streaming involves considerations such as buffering, latency, quality, and adaptive bitrate.
Animation techniques and tools
Animation is a form of video that uses computer-generated or manipulated images to create the illusion of motion. Animation can be used for various purposes, such as entertainment, education, simulation, etc. There are different animation techniques and tools that can be used to create animation content, such as:
Frame-by-frame animation: This is a traditional animation technique that involves drawing or capturing each frame of the animation separately and then playing them back at a certain speed to create motion.
Tweening animation: This is a computer-assisted animation technique that involves creating key frames that define the start and end points of the animation and then letting the computer interpolate the intermediate frames to create smooth motion.
3D animation: This is a computer-generated animation technique that involves creating 3D models of the objects and characters in the animation and then applying textures, lighting, shading, and rendering to create realistic images.
Motion capture: This is a computer-aided animation technique that involves recording the movements of real actors or objects using sensors or cameras and then transferring them to 3D models in the animation.
Sound and Music in Digital Multimedia
In this chapter, you will learn about the principles and techniques of sound and music in digital multimedia, such as:
Sound recording and editing
Sound recording is the process of capturing sounds using a microphone or a device that converts sound waves into electrical signals. Sound recording involves considerations such as sampling rate, bit depth, channels, and format.
Sound editing is the process of modifying and enhancing sound clips using software tools that allow us to perform various operations on the sound data, such as cropping, fading, mixing, filtering, equalizing, etc. Sound editing can be used for various purposes, such as improving quality or clarity, creating effects or transitions, etc.
Sound compression and playback
Sound compression is the process of reducing the size of sound data by removing or reducing redundant or irrelevant information. Sound compression allows us to save storage space, bandwidth, and processing time when dealing with sound content. There are two types of sound compression: lossless and lossy. Lossless compression preserves the original quality of the sound, while lossy compression sacrifices some quality for higher compression rates.
Sound playback is the process of reproducing sound using a speaker or a device that converts electrical signals into sound waves. Sound playback involves considerations such as frequency response, dynamic range, distortion, and noise.
Music synthesis and notation
Music synthesis is the process of creating music using electronic devices or software that generate or manipulate sounds. Music synthesis can be used for various purposes, such as composing, arranging, performing, etc. There are different music synthesis techniques and tools that can be used to create music content, such as:
Additive synthesis: This is a music synthesis technique that involves creating complex sounds by adding simple waveforms together.
Subtractive synthesis: This is a music synthesis technique that involves creating complex sounds by filtering out unwanted frequencies from simple waveforms.
FM synthesis: This is a music synthesis technique that involves creating complex sounds by modulating the frequency of one waveform with another waveform.
Sampling: This is a music synthesis technique that involves creating sounds by recording and playing back real sounds.
MIDI: This is a music synthesis tool that involves using a standard protocol to communicate musical information between electronic devices or software.
Music notation is the process of representing music using symbols that indicate pitch, duration, rhythm, dynamics, etc. Music notation can be used for various purposes, such as reading, writing, teaching, learning, etc. There are different music notation systems and tools that can be used to create music content, such as:
Staff notation: This is a music notation system that uses five horizontal lines and four spaces to represent different pitches.
Tablature notation: This is a music notation system that uses numbers and symbols to indicate how to play an instrument.
Chord notation: This is a music notation system that uses letters and symbols to indicate the chords of a song.
LilyPond: This is a music notation tool that uses a text-based language to create high-quality sheet music.
Musescore: This is a music notation tool that uses a graphical user interface to create and edit sheet music.
Text and Typography in Digital Multimedia
In this chapter, you will learn about the principles and techniques of text and typography in digital multimedia, such as:
Text encoding and formatting
Text encoding is the process of converting text into a sequence of bits that can be stored, transmitted, and displayed by digital devices. Text encoding involves choosing a character set and a character encoding scheme. A character set is a collection of characters that are used in a language or a group of languages. A character encoding scheme is a system that assigns a unique code to each character in a character set. Some common character sets and encoding schemes are:
ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is a character set that contains 128 characters, including letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and control codes. This is also an encoding scheme that uses 7 bits to represent each character.
Unicode: Universal Coded Character Set. This is a character set that contains over a million characters, covering most of the world's languages and symbols. This is also a family of encoding schemes that use different numbers of bits to represent each character, such as UTF-8, UTF-16, UTF-32.
HTML: HyperText Markup Language. This is a markup language that uses tags to define the structure and content of web pages. HTML also uses entities to represent special characters that are not part of the character set or encoding scheme.
Text formatting is the process of applying styles and attributes to text to enhance its appearance and readability. Text formatting involves choosing fonts, sizes, colours, alignments, indents, margins, spacing, etc. Text formatting can be done using various tools and methods, such as:
CSS: Cascading Style Sheets. This is a style sheet language that allows us to define and apply styles to HTML elements.
WYSIWYG: What You See Is What You Get. This is a type of text editor that allows us to format text using graphical buttons and menus.
Markdown: This is a lightweight markup language that allows us to format text using plain text syntax.
Typography principles and styles
Typography is the art and technique of arranging and designing text. Typography involves applying principles and styles to text to create visual harmony, contrast, hierarchy, emphasis, etc. Some typography principles and styles are:
Serif and sans-serif: These are two types of fonts that differ in whether they have small strokes or lines at the end of the main strokes of the characters. Serif fonts tend to look more formal and traditional, while sans-serif fonts tend to look more modern and clean.
Kerning and tracking: These are two types of adjustments that affect the spacing between characters. Kerning adjusts the spacing between individual pairs of characters, while tracking adjusts the spacing across a range of characters.
Leading and line-height: These are two terms that refer to the vertical space between lines of text. Leading is measured from the baseline of one line to the baseline of the next line, while line-height is measured from the top of one line to the top of the next line.
Alignment and justification: These are two types of adjustments that affect how text is aligned horizontally within a given space. Alignment can be left, right, center, or mixed, while justification can be full or partial.
Hypermedia and hypertext
Hypermedia is a form of digital multimedia that uses links to connect different media types and elements within a nonlinear structure. Hypermedia allows us to create interactive and dynamic content that can be explored by users according to their preferences and needs.
Hypertext is a form of hypermedia that uses links to connect different texts within a nonlinear structure. Hypertext allows us to create rich and complex texts that can be accessed by users in multiple ways.
Design and Interactivity in Digital Multimedia
Design and Interactivity in Digital Multimedia
In this chapter, you will learn about the principles and techniques of design and interactivity in digital multimedia, such as:
Visual design elements and principles
Visual design is the process of creating and arranging visual elements to communicate a message or achieve a purpose. Visual design involves applying elements and principles to create visual harmony, contrast, hierarchy, emphasis, etc. Some visual design elements and principles are:
Line: This is a visual element that defines the shape, direction, and movement of an object or a space.
Shape: This is a visual element that defines the form, boundary, and area of an object or a space.
Colour: This is a visual element that defines the hue, saturation, and value of an object or a space.
Texture: This is a visual element that defines the surface quality or feel of an object or a space.
Balance: This is a visual principle that refers to the distribution of visual weight or attention across an object or a space.
Proportion: This is a visual principle that refers to the relative size and scale of different parts of an object or a space.
Alignment: This is a visual principle that refers to the arrangement and positioning of different parts of an object or a space.
Repetition: This is a visual principle that refers to the use of similar or identical elements to create consistency and unity.
Interactivity design and evaluation
Interactivity design is the process of creating and arranging interactive elements to enable user input and feedback. Interactivity design involves applying concepts and methods to create usability, functionality, engagement, etc. Some interactivity design concepts and methods are:
User interface: This is the part of an interactive system that allows users to interact with it using input devices (such as keyboard, mouse, touch screen) and output devices (such as monitor, speaker, vibration).
User experience: This is the overall impression and feeling that users have when interacting with an interactive system.
User-centered design: This is an approach to interactivity design that focuses on understanding and satisfying the needs, preferences, and expectations of the users.
Prototyping: This is a method of interactivity design that involves creating and testing low-fidelity or high-fidelity models of an interactive system befo